• [hal-03702387] Biodiversity Protection in Private Forests: PES Schemes, Institutions and Prosocial Behavior

    The overall research question addresses the effectiveness of incentive mechanisms in poli -cies that enhance private forest owners’ biodiversity protection. In particular, the paper focuses on the link between forest owners’ motivations, incentives, and institutions, and questions the incentives of the current biodiversity protection policies. Our hypothesis is that the purely monetary nature of the incentives can cause a “crowding out effect”, i.e., forest owners may reduce their voluntary contribution to biodiversity protection that is driven by prosocial motivations (altruism, self-image, etc.). With this in mind, as well as the knowledge acquired via this project about forest owners’ motivations, we looked for the most effective combinations of “incentive mechanisms” (monetary and non-monetary) and “institutions” (national and local authorities, NGOs, etc.) to encourage forest owners to adopt biodiversity protection measures in their forests.

    View online : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ha...

  • [hal-03512997] Bacterial assemblages of urban microbiomes mobilized by runoff waters match land use typologies and harbor core species involved in pollutant degradation and opportunistic human infections

    Cities are patchworks of urban catchments divided into functional units according to their commercial, residential and industrial activities, and socio-urbanistic patterns. The hypothesis of city surface microbiomes being structured by socio-urbanistic variables leading to an emergence of synurbic taxa was tested. According to the r/K microbial ecology theory, a gradient of well-adapted synurbic K-strategists and of opportunistic –r-strategists should occur over city surfaces. K-strategists would be core components while r-ones would be transiently detected. To resolve these patterns, sub-catchments (n = 21) of an area of high commercial and industrial activities were investigated over three time periods covering one year. The sub-catchments’ land use patterns and associated human behaviors were converted into socio-urbanistic variables and groupings. Bacterial cells mobilized by runoffs per sub-catchment were recovered, and analyzed by classical approaches, microbial source tracking DNA assays and DNA meta-barcoding approaches. Relationships between these datasets, the runoff physico-chemical properties, and descriptors of the socio-urbanistic groupings were investigated. 16S rRNA meta-barcoding analyses showed evidence of the occurrence of K- and r-like strategists. Twenty-eight core genera were identified, and correlation networks revealed large bacterial modules organized around actinobacterial taxa involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. Other bacterial networks were related to the occurrences of hygienic wastes, and involved bacteria originating from fecal contaminations. Several r-strategists like Sulfurospirillum were recorded and found associated to point source pollutions. The tpm -metabarcoding approach deciphered these r / K strategists at the species level among more than ten genera. Nine core Klike Pseudomomas species were identified. The P. aeruginosa human opportunistic pathogen and P. syringae phytopathogens were part of these K-strategists. Other tpm -harboring bacterial pathogens showed r-like opportunistic distribution patterns. Correlation network analyses indicated a strong incidence of hygienic wastes and hydrocarbon-pollutions on tpm -harboring bacteria. These analyses demonstrated the occurrence of core synurbic bacterial K-strategists over city surfaces.

    View online : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ha...

  • [hal-03167988] Ecotoxicological risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern identified by “suspect screening” from urban wastewater treatment plant effluents at a territorial scale

    Urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are a major vector of highly ecotoxic contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) for urban and sub-urban streams. Ecotoxicological risk assessments (ERAs) provide essential in- formation to public environmental authorities. Nevertheless, ERAs are mainly performed at very local scale (one or few WWTPs) and on pre-selected list of CECs. To cope with these limits, the present study aims to develop a territorial-scale ERA on CECs previously identified by a “suspect screening” analytical approach (LC-QToF-MS) and quantified in the effluents of 10 WWTPs of a highly urbanized territory during three periods of the year. Among CECs, this work focused on pharmaceutical residue and pesticides. ERA was conducted following two complementary methods: (1) a single substance approach, based on the calculation for each CEC of risk quotients (RQs) by the ratio of Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) and Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC), and (2) mixture risk assessment (“cocktail effect”) based on a concentration addition model (CA), sum- ming individual RQs. Chemical results led to an ERA for 41 CEC (37 pharmaceuticals and 4 pesticides) detected in treated effluents. Single substance ERA identified 19 CECs implicated in at least one significant risk for streams, with significant risks for DEET, diclofenac, lidocaine, atenolol, terbutryn, atorvastatin, methocarbamol, and venlafaxine (RQs reaching 39.84, 62.10, 125.58, 179.11, 348.24, 509.27, 1509.71 and 3097.37, respectively).

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  • [hal-03162034] Occurrence and removal of emerging pollutants in urban sewage treatment plants using LC-QToF-MS suspect screening and quantification

    Urban wastewaters (WW) are a major vector of many emerging pollutants (EPs) to aquatic ecosystems, as urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to abate them. New methods are now critically necessary for a more comprehensive analysis of WW samples and for the assessment of the WWTP efficiency in EP removal. To this end, the present study aims to develop a methodology to identify and quantify EPs, especially pharmaceutical residues and pesticides, in the raw and treated wastewater of 10 heterogeneous WWTPs in a highly urbanized ter- ritory in France over three sampling campaigns, through the following steps: (1) development and implementation of a suspect screening of EPs in WW samples, based on a solid phase extraction followed by an LC-QToF-MS analysis; (2) confirmation of their identification by reinjection of WW samples spiked with authentic analytical standards; (3) quantification of previously identified compounds by targeted LC-QToF-MS analysis in raw and treated effluents and assessment of their removal efficiency by WWTPs. Forty-one EPs, including 37 pharmaceutical residues (such as anti-depressive, anti-hypertensive, or antipsychotic drugs) and 4 pesticides, were identified by suspect screening. Some of them (e.g. milnacipran) are reported for the first time in urban WWTPs in this study. High variability in de- tection frequency and concentrations were observed in function of the EP and WWTP. Nevertheless, median re- moval rates were considered negative or low for more than 50% of the EPs (respectively 4 and 17), leading to a quantification of significant concentrations in treated WW. Their release into receiving streams may thus lead to ecotoxicological risks that should be evaluated in order to prevent any degradation of the exposed ecosystems.

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